The Kardashian family has recently made headlines again, as someone from Kourtney’s past claims paternity of her three-year-old son Mason. Kourtney Kardashian has been in a relationship with model, reality star and businessman Scott Disick since 2006 who contends that he fathered the child. The couple also has an infant daughter together.
Model Suggests Tryst
Model Michael Girgenti came forward in 2009 proclaiming that he fathered Mason during an intimate tryst that he and Kardashian shared. Girgenti claims that he worked with Kardashian on a photo shoot while she and Disick were separated. He further goes on to explain the details of the incident, which he suggests led to the birth of the boy nine months later.
Though Girgenti continues claiming paternity and possible legal rights to the child, Kardashian holds that the allegations are lies. Disick reportedly agreed that submitting to a paternity test would end the allocations once and for all.
Girgenti remains confident that testing will prove that Disick is not the father. He also hopes that when the truth becomes evident that Kardashian might agree to Girgenti’s request for a relationship with the child, believing that the boy has the right to know his biological father.
Prevalence of DNA Testing
Every year, hundreds of thousands of men submit to DNA testing, as court evidence for declaring or denying paternity. Genetics Testing Laboratories performs thousands of tests for women who require confirmation of a child’s father while in pursuit of support. Occasionally, men suspect a partner of infidelity and desire testing as proof that they did not father a child. In any event, tests available to the public require nothing more than swabbing the inside of the mouth of the child and one or both of the parents.
Process of Testing
Once the laboratory receives the specimens provided by the in-home kits, staff evaluate the child’s DNA sample for the genetic markers provided by the parents. The laboratory then isolates the genetic markers in question from the child and compares them to the parent. Using a genetic based algorithm database, the lab analyzes the parent’s DNA for the likelihood of paternity. The algorithm provides the test results as a percentage. The higher the percentage of similarity, the greater the chance that the man fathered the child.
Legally Binding Home Testing
When required for determination by a court of law, subjects choose legally binding home test kits, available at GTLDNA.com. The lab ships the American Association of Blood Banks accredited test kits to an unbiased third party who supervises the DNA collecting procedure. The enclosed paperwork requires the signatures of the witness and test subjects. Required documentation must also include signed photographic evidence of each test subject. The witness then seals all of the lab samples and documentation in the envelope provided and ships the contents to the lab via a courier service. Clients receive results in three to five business days following receipt of the samples.
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The overall focus of medicine is a concept that has been highly structured for several decades. Many modern day physicians now offer personalized approaches to help fight their patient’s illness. New waves of alternative drugs have been able to effectively target patients with specific needs. Ultimately, these new “personalized drugs” can potentially pose a threat to the thousands of mainstream drugs available today. New DNA-based drugs focus on providing a more effective solution to overcoming and preventing rare diseases.
Dr. Stephen B. Shrewsbury, MD is the author of Defy Your DNA. One of Dr. Shrewsbury’s many goals in writing this book is to provide hope to those faced with a rare genetic disease. Throughout the book, he discusses the introduction of various “gene-patch” medicines. These gene patch therapies will be able to help thousands of Americans identify and prevent diseases before they become ill.
Defy Your DNA offers insight to how specialized drugs can patch up mistakes located in our DNA. The rare diseases that can be adverted include Muscular Dystrophy and Lou Gehrig’s disease. It is reported that these medications will also be able to tackle cancer, asthma and high cholesterol. Shrewsbury is paving the way for a more direct and targeted approach to becoming familiar with your DNA as well as offering a solution to health issues that were previously recognized as terminal.
Shrewsbury has dedicated the book to those who have previously participated in a drug study of some sort. He recognizes that without these brave individuals, new drugs or advances in pharmaceuticals would not be possible. Defy Your DNA begins by discussing the evolution of medicine and where it stands now. Dr. Shrewsbury makes note of how generalized medicine has shifted into a more personal approach.
One of the most interesting chapters would have to be “New Drugs for Bad Bugs” which further explains how new medicines will block harmful viruses. Today, Dr. Shrewsbury has established Shrewd Consulting LLC which encourages and advises biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies who also seek to develop new drugs which will combat genetic disorders.
Three main ways on how gene patches will revolutionize medicine, include:
- They are designed reproducibly and are incredibly accurate, to patch a tiny piece including 30 letters of the human genome’s 3 billion letters. Once the sequences of those letters have been determined, the gene patches can be built quickly.
- Gene patch medication can target various parts of the human genome. It can prevent and counter rare diseases that are treated poorly or not at all by today’s sophisticated medicines.
- Once the FDA has gained experience with some of these gene patches, companies developing new ones will use the same basic backbone chemistry, which will allow faster development and path to approval for a wide range of new drugs. This will ensure more medicine is readily available to treat more people; many with challenging diseases who have been neglected until now.
“A number of these drugs currently in research could be submitted to the FDA for final approval in the next year” says Shrewsbury. “A big benefit with this new type of medicine is that the early phase of drug development before clinical trials start takes less time, in some cases, days instead of years. These medications will literally revolutionize healthcare.”
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DNA testing from home is a discreet and convenient way to establish the paternity of a child from the comfort and privacy of your home. Paternity testing is an important step in establishing who the biological father of a child is. This type of testing is extremely important when seeking child support or for fathers, who want parental rights. Genetic Testing Laboratories offer affordable and accurate in home DNA paternity testing.
1. Accuracy of In Home DNA Testing
GTL DNA performs tests within their quality laboratories. Paternity testing is based on sixteen genetic makers to determine the father of a child. If a man is the actual father of a child, fifteen of these genetic markers will correspond exactly with the child’s genetic material. The sixteenth genetic marker is the one that determines the sex of an individual, so it does not factor into this test. These tests when combined with a sampling of the mother’s genetic material are 99.999 percent correct. GTL testing is a 1000 times more conclusive than tests that only have 99 percent accuracy.
2. The Importance of an Accredited DNA Testing Lab
An accredited laboratory must go through a series of thorough assessments and examinations of their testing sites and laboratory procedures. All testing is assessed to make sure it meets the highest standards for precise DNA testing. Laboratories that are not accredited may not deliver the same type of quality testing and may not be used to court cases to determine legal custody. GTL meets the AABB or the American Association of Blood Banks standards for sample collection and testing procedures.
3. Legal Paternity Testing Requirements
A legally admissible paternity test must meet certain criteria established by the AABB. This agency requires that the sample kit be sent to an individual, who does not know the person to be tested. Generally this is a professional collector. A photographic identification is needed to verify the identity of the person tested. This process is a way to establish the legal integrity of the DNA testing, because it is overseen by an unbiased third party. GTL DNA supplies all information to ensure a test will meet the standards required by the AABB to be recognized as an accredited legal paternity test.
4. Advantages of In Home Testing
The accuracy of GTL DNA genetic tests provide the peace of mind that the tests individuals receive are correct. For many individuals, knowledge of paternity is more important than a legally binding test. The “collect and send” test is a relatively simple way to collect DNA samples and send them back to the lab. Each test includes instructions on how to collect genetic material with an ordinary cotton swab. The DNA paperwork is ready to download and print. Then all that is needed is to send it to GTL for testing. Paternity is too important to leave to an unaccredited company. Go with an accredited laboratory and get quality results, when they matter most.
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Violent crimes are among the most horrific events on Earth, but sometimes it gets even worse. The crime itself happens and then another person becomes victim to it. A person’s life can be destroyed or even taken from him or her if authorities accuse and charge the wrong person with the crime. To further compound the tragedy, the families of both the original victim and the person jailed under false accusations may not know that the real criminal is still at large. DNA testing can ultimately prove who is responsible for a given crime investigation.
Randolph Arledge was a victim of a false accusation, charge and conviction. In 1981, Carolyn Armstrong was found dead in Texas from dozens of stab wounds. Randolph was not even 30 years old at the time. Three years later, Randolph was sentenced to 99 years in prison for killing Armstrong. The problem is that he did not do it and there was evidence to prove that fact. He went on to spend 28 years of his 99-year sentence in jail for a crime he did not commit. In February 2013, Arledge was set free. Close to half of his life has been stolen from him, but he got the rest back thanks to modern DNA testing.
When Carolyn Armstrong was found, police also found her car down the road. Her vehicle contained DNA evidence but was useless at the time. Arledge is very lucky that police decided to keep the evidence, since they can usually be discarded in most cases. DNA testing was done more than a decade later and determined that another man was the killer. After a hearing, is when a local judge let Arledge go on bond until the conviction is officially overturned.
When Arledge went to jail, his two children were both under five years old. Currently, they are both adults who grew up without a father. The family is now reunited and Armstrong’s family has the satisfaction of knowing that police definitely have the right man this time. Sadly, that does not get back any of the time Randolph Arledge and his children lost.
It is uncertain just how many people have been incarcerated under wrongful convictions. DNA testing is too late to save hundreds or even thousands of them, but it is not too late to make sure that it happens much less often and never in cases where there is DNA evidence. With reliable companies making it easy for even civilians to get accurate DNA testing, there is no reason police and courts cannot offer the same.
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Prince Harry’s antics in Las Vegas last fall understandably enraged members of the royal family. Sowing a few wild oats may not have invoked such ire if Harry had taken care to ensure the event remained private. However, nude photos of the young prince and a bevy of hookers emerged to the delight of media personnel. The indiscretion soon reached the confines of England’s royal palace. Influenced by her board of advisors, the Queen herself supposedly demanded that Harry undergo DNA testing to determine if he was in fact the product of royal blood.
Lady Diana supposedly had an affair with a military officer by the name of James Hewitt. Many questioned whether the alliance produced the young prince. Like Harry, the gentleman dons red hair and fair skin covered in an array of freckles. According to reports, Prince Charles adamantly prohibited any DNA testing that questioned Harry’s heritage.
Prince Harry Test
In honor of the fun-loving royal, Britain’s DNA now offers couples the opportunity of determining the likelihood of producing a red-haired child. Couples interested in the possibility of passing the red hair trait along to offspring need merely submit a saliva sample for DNA testing. Technicians are able to identify the “ginger gene” by analyzing DNA samples. Dr. Jim Wilson, one of the company’s employees explains that having a child with red hair requires carrying one of three variations of the MC1R gene.
If both parents carry the gene variation, they have a 25 percent possibility of having children with red hair regardless of the hair color of the parents. Passed on from one generation to the next, statistics estimate that four out of every 10 people carry the variation. The company plans to offer the “Who Do You Think You Are?” test during a live exhibition at the London Olympia in February.
Questions Answered by DNA Testing
While DNA testing has long been used for determining paternity, evaluating genetic markers provides a variety of information ranging from ancestry to disease predisposition. Analyzing samples supplied by individuals, technicians successfully separate genetic information donated by each parent. Using worldwide databases, laboratory technicians have the ability of determining the point of origin of genetic material spanning back many generations.
Modern DNA testing identifies when individual’s carry genetic markers associated with over two dozen known medical conditions. Genetic information reveals if individuals carry markers associated with aging processes that might include Alzheimer’s or macular degeneration. Testing also indicates when someone has a likelihood of developing seven different types of cancers. The test might additionally determine the possibility of experiencing cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Using this information, patients and physicians may formulate preventative treatments.
Predisposition testing requires that individuals submit the necessary sample in the office of a health care provider. Individuals may submit DNA samples for ancestry or paternity evaluation from the privacy of their home. After purchasing a test kit, clients merely follow the instructions for acquiring the necessary sample, which generally only entails swabbing the inside of the mouth. Once received by the testing laboratory, technicians perform the desired test and send the results back to the client.
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Scientists from the University of Cambridge have discovered quadruple helix DNA in human cancer cells. The result of a decade of research, the study published in Nature Chemistry may spawn new leads in the fight against cancer.
Normal DNA consists of the well-known double helix. The helices are made up of molecules called nucleotides. In a double helix, the nucleotides make up two ladder-like rails connected by rungs of more nucleotides. A quadruple helix has four rails in a square configuration with fractured rungs. They are also known to contain higher than usual amounts of the nucleotide guanine. Quadruplex structures have long been observed in laboratory settings. For the last twenty years, they have been known to grow in test tube experiments. However, the Cambridge study marks the first time they have ever been observed in living, human tissue.
In order to isolate these strange structures, the Cambridge scientists used an antibody attracted to the nucleotide guanine. By attaching a fluorescent bio marker to the antibody, scientists were able to isolate cancer cells with abnormal quantities of guanine. They then used a special compound to effectively “freeze” the quadruplexes in place for study. They discovered that quadruplexes only seem to appear when a cancer cell is about to divide. This may be a key insight into the dysfunction that causes cancer form and grow in healthy tissue.
The study theorizes that a similar method of antibodies and bio markers could be used to target cancer during cell division. By attacking the quadruplexes, it might be possible to halt the spread of cancer. Years of theorizing and working off of hypothetical models went into the Cambridge study. Synthetic experiments done on lab-grown quadruplexes preceded the experiment on human tissue. Dr. Julie Sharp with Cancer Research UK says the next step will be developing a similar methodology to find quadruplexes in tumors.
Cancer research has come a long way in the last twenty years. New techniques are being designed to target only cancer-affected areas, and testing for genetic predisposition has given people the tools to take precautions. This new research is another enormous step in the quest for a cure. Research supervisor Shankar Balasubramanian expressed hope that pharmaceutical companies would take the quadruplex discovery and run with it. However, he stressed that the function of quadruplexes is not yet understood. It is possible they evolved for a function.
“It’s a philosophical question as to whether they are there by design or not,” Balasubramanian said, “but they exist and nature has to deal with them. Maybe by targeting them we are contributing to the disruption they cause.”
Many are still skeptical if targeting quadruplexes is a viable form of treatment or not, the research has provided extraordinary insight into the growth of cancer. While the world awaits a true cure, advancements in precautionary steps and treatments continue. Every step makes the future a little brighter.
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It seems like everywhere you turn; one of the Kardashians is involved in some new dramatic scandal. Most recently, it’s Khloe who is making news. The youngest of the three sisters recently dealt with accusations from her biological father’s newest wives that she was not, Robert Kardashian’s daughter. This was news to the fashion designer and reality television star that has never recognized anyone else as her father.
Apparently Khloe’s mother stepped outside of her marriage, and she was the result of those indiscretions. Rumor mongers have named Khloe’s real father as anyone involved in the O.J. Simpson trial, which her father represented in court. While many might have shrugged off circulating rumors, Khloe was affected by these allegations significantly. She has also argued that Robert Kardashian was her real father, since he raised her as a child. Keeping Up with the Kardashians, will feature Khloe’s decision not to take the DNA test. She went so far as to tell her mother on-screen:
“My dad is Robert Kardashian. My other dad is Bruce Jenner. If you f**ked other people during the same time, and you do not know, go on Maury. Like, I don’t care!”
It might seem odd to air this topic to millions of viewers, but the family has never shied away from discussing or creating drama in the media. Consider Khloe’s sister Kim’s short-lived marriage to Kris Humphries, which lasted only 72 days. The pair are still dueling it out in divorce court, and the battle has lasted longer than the marriage itself.
Kris Jenner forced her other children to take cheek swabs for further proof that they belong to her former husband. However, Khloe did not agree to the cheek swab test. Since then, the last Kardashian sibling seemed to have acquiesced to paternity testing against that of her siblings to put her mind at ease. Khloe’s mother remarked upon her finally taking the DNA test as a measure to rest assured that Robert was her father. She soon after apologized for any past actions that might have jeopardized her family’s happiness.
When the doctor showed up at the Kardashian residence while the cameras were rolling, Khloe lashed out at her mother and refused the test. It seems that no matter what the DNA test showed, she wanted nothing to do with it. The general public will have to remain in the dark about Khloe’s lineage, at least for the time being.
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It’s fairly common to refer to a misogynistic man, or an unrefined person as a ‘Neanderthal.’ However, recent advances in genetic testing and developmental biology have shown that we are closer to our Neanderthal ancestors than we originally thought. There are several new ways that show our relation to Neanderthals in the news recently:
- Genetic testing of human volunteers has shown that up to 4% of our DNA is identical to Neanderthal DNA, which was harvested from bones of this previously-thought-extinct species.
- Interestingly, while Neanderthals were thought to have died out before humans, studies have shown that it’s far more likely that Neanderthals mated with human predecessors in parts of Asia, the Americas and Europe.
- ‘Neanderthal’ certainly has caveman-like connotations, indicating a simpleton or clumsy individual. True Neanderthals believed high-functioning thought processes that allowed them to do problem-solving, communicate and work in much the same ways humans do. Indeed, the theory has even been advanced that Neanderthals were smarter than humans.
- Professor George Church of Harvard Medical School has cultivated enough Neanderthal DNA to insert into stem cells, which he can then inject into human embryo cells from a human female volunteer. The end result would be a human woman carrying a Neanderthal baby. Obvious awe aside, there are dozens of potential ethical, medical and practical issues with re-creating a Neanderthal person.
One of the practical problems would be that while cloning may create identical DNA, it may express differently than in the original. This explains why cloned pets often don’t look or act the same as the original once did. Another practical problem is that the Neanderthal fetus is very likely to react poorly to the environment in the woman’s uterus, and her body may not be compatible with its growth. The ethical issues are obvious; it seems too harsh to bring a Neanderthal back into the world where it will become, essentially, a zoo animal.
Another medical issue we’ll face is the likelihood of mistakes. There are no references or precedents to show when scientists may make a mistake when cloning. This can endanger the life of the Neanderthal, not to mention that of the proposed human female volunteer. Advancements in genetics and medicine make this possibility a fascinating one to say the least.. Ethics and moral judgments aside, the fact that we are connected to cavemen should come as a bit of a surprise to many.
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Revenge is one of those rare shows where the protagonist can get away with murder and fans still love her, but Emily lying to Amanda about Jack not being her baby’s father might be difficult to forgive. Then again, Amanda is a murderer and she did go after Emily’s childhood sweetheart so the question is, do you really care what happens to Amanda?
Despite some questionable choices by leading lady Emily Thorne, Revenge fans are as loyal to her as her partner in crime, Nolan Ross. Why should fans trust Emily? Just some of her good deeds include:
- Risking her life to save Nolan from the white haired man
- Trying desperately to clear her father’s name
- Honoring her father’s memory by not killing the white haired man when she had the chance
- Standing up to Takeda when he wanted to pin Tyler’s murder on one of them
Emily’s actions certainly buy her the benefit of the doubt. If she is lying to Amanda about the baby not being Jack’s, she probably has a good reason. Amanda has been causing trouble since she showed up in the Hamptons the first time and if she would just step aside, Emily and Jack could have the relationship they deserve, plus Charlotte could continue to build her sister-like relationship with Emily instead of bonding with Amanda. That could only spell trouble for the fragile teenager. Is one lie that might prevent Amanda from breaking hearts and breaking heads really a bad thing?
What makes Revenge such a fun show is knowing that despite whatever crazy stunt Emily pulls, she is always on the side of good. Although she has lost her way a few times when trying to protect Daniel or pushing Jack away to keep him from interfering with her plans, viewers have faith that Emily won’t be taking a trip to the dark side. Revenge may be her main focus, but she has time and again passed on opportunities to hurt her targets if it meant there would be collateral damage.
Did lying to Amanda about Jack not being the father hurt Amanda’s feelings? Sure, but it may help Amanda let go of Jack, and that is pretty much the only way to free him from her since he will never walk away from his kid.
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this lie is how would Emily have faked the results? She was able to switch out a sample of Amanda’s DNA for her own when Victoria tested it against Charlotte’s to determine if they were related. But Emily does not have a DNA sample from the man Amanda slept with after Jack. If Jack had not been the dad and his DNA was sent to the lab for the paternity test, the results would have come back negative. Amanda had the results that said Jack was the dad. How could Emily have faked that without swapping out Jack’s DNA for a sample from the real father? You almost have to wonder if Amanda will ask these questions too and order a home paternity test to check Jack’s DNA against the baby’s once it is born. It would be interesting to see how Emily would talk her way out of the one.
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