The Kardashian family has recently made headlines again, as someone from Kourtney’s past claims paternity of her three-year-old son Mason. Kourtney Kardashian has been in a relationship with model, reality star and businessman Scott Disick since 2006 who contends that he fathered the child. The couple also has an infant daughter together.
Model Suggests Tryst
Model Michael Girgenti came forward in 2009 proclaiming that he fathered Mason during an intimate tryst that he and Kardashian shared. Girgenti claims that he worked with Kardashian on a photo shoot while she and Disick were separated. He further goes on to explain the details of the incident, which he suggests led to the birth of the boy nine months later.
Though Girgenti continues claiming paternity and possible legal rights to the child, Kardashian holds that the allegations are lies. Disick reportedly agreed that submitting to a paternity test would end the allocations once and for all.
Girgenti remains confident that testing will prove that Disick is not the father. He also hopes that when the truth becomes evident that Kardashian might agree to Girgenti’s request for a relationship with the child, believing that the boy has the right to know his biological father.
Prevalence of DNA Testing
Every year, hundreds of thousands of men submit to DNA testing, as court evidence for declaring or denying paternity. Genetics Testing Laboratories performs thousands of tests for women who require confirmation of a child’s father while in pursuit of support. Occasionally, men suspect a partner of infidelity and desire testing as proof that they did not father a child. In any event, tests available to the public require nothing more than swabbing the inside of the mouth of the child and one or both of the parents.
Process of Testing
Once the laboratory receives the specimens provided by the in-home kits, staff evaluate the child’s DNA sample for the genetic markers provided by the parents. The laboratory then isolates the genetic markers in question from the child and compares them to the parent. Using a genetic based algorithm database, the lab analyzes the parent’s DNA for the likelihood of paternity. The algorithm provides the test results as a percentage. The higher the percentage of similarity, the greater the chance that the man fathered the child.
Legally Binding Home Testing
When required for determination by a court of law, subjects choose legally binding home test kits, available at GTLDNA.com. The lab ships the American Association of Blood Banks accredited test kits to an unbiased third party who supervises the DNA collecting procedure. The enclosed paperwork requires the signatures of the witness and test subjects. Required documentation must also include signed photographic evidence of each test subject. The witness then seals all of the lab samples and documentation in the envelope provided and ships the contents to the lab via a courier service. Clients receive results in three to five business days following receipt of the samples.
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The American Association of Blood Banks reports that laboratories perform over 300,000 paternity tests annually. This equates to laboratories receiving over 900,000 samples every year. The simplicity and relatively low cost of undergoing the tests account for the ever-increasing numbers of DNA tests performed.
Reasons for Paternity Testing
One of the most common reasons that individuals undergo a paternity test is to show proof of the identity for a biological father. Occasionally, a former female partner can confront a man claiming that he fathered the child through a brief intimate relationship. Men may suspect their female significant other of adultery and request a DNA paternity test in an attempt at determining the true heritage of a child. Similarly, grandparents may suspect promiscuity occurred and desire to verify their relationship to a child. Following the death of a parent, young adults may discover that the parent may not have had a biological tie and desire to learn their identity.
DNA Sample Collection Process
Anyone in need of DNA testing can order one to three test kits from a certified laboratory. Samples required for acquiring genetic material entails swabbing the inside of the cheek with a device that appears similar to a large cotton swab. Individuals then insert swabs into each individual container with the necessary information and send the kit back to the lab.
Depending on the facility, laboratories complete tests within one to six weeks. Individuals typically receive the test results by mail. If a court determination depends on the results of the test, they must purchase legally binding tests which require notarized signatures of the people chosen to serve as the witness or witnesses during the swabbing process.
Distinguishing between Two Possible Fathers
Samples obtained from the mother, child and more than one man provide more than enough genetic information for proving the paternity of either man with 99.99 percent accuracy. When a test on two related men is required, test results may exhibit lower numbers compared to tests of two unrelated men. If the men are twins, there is no possibility of accurately identifying the father.
The DNA Testing Process
Each child receives 23 chromosomes from their mother and 23 chromosomes from their father. Each cell contains a combination of these chromosomes for a total of 23 chromosomes. DNA tests analyze the chromosomes of the mother, the chromosomes of the father and compare these sequences with samples obtained from the child.
The accuracy of the testing process varies between laboratories. Some only identify DNA using five chromosomal markers while others use 16. The more markers identified and used for comparison increases the accuracy of identification. Each parent contributes these 16 markers to the child. The DNA of the parent in question must have all 16 markers. Technicians then compare these markers with a large database for any other possible matches. Using the general population as a guide, the results indicate the probability that a particular man contributed the DNA found in the child.
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Singer Ne-Yo has gained recent media attention over his recent paternity tests results from his ex-girlfriend Jessica White. According to court documents, Ne-Yo admits to demonizing the women in public to aid the selling of his records. White has filed a defamation of character lawsuit against the rapper as his stories have hurt her reputation. It is said that Jessica is now unable to gain employment, which will leave her unable to support her young son.
Ms. White and Ne-Yo had an intimate relationship at one time. She became pregnant, but informed the singer that he may or may not be the child’s biological father. Ne-Yo admittedly was not concerned about the infant’s possible biological connection and agreed to parent the infant without undergoing a DNA test. His name appears on the child’s birth certificate as the father and he named the boy Chimere. Ne-Yo’s birth name is Shaffer Chimere Smith. Before the couple parted ways, Ne-Yo supported White and the baby from 2004 to 2007. He also paid White a settlement in 2009, which included a privacy clause.
After the couple separated, he went on a public tirade claiming that White took the child to an unknown destination. White claims that Ne-Yo had the woman’s e-mail address and phone number but failed to remain in contact. The rapper went on to claim that White manipulated him into believing that he fathered the child. He says family and friends influenced him to undergo paternity testing. Documents indicate that White influenced the paternity testing and Ne-Yo complied.
The barrage of comments and defamatory claims against White by Ne-Yo include a continuous array of vulgar names and demands for money. Ne-Yo reportedly contacted White in 2010 in hopes of repairing their relationship. The singer’s repeated behavior destroyed any attempts at reconciliation with the woman and rumored child. White claims that Ne-Yo’s continued defamation constitutes a breach of contract while causing her emotional and financial distress.
Paternity suits remain a problem in today’s society. Statistics indicate that over 300,000 men undergo paternity DNA testing annually. Studies further suggest that only one-third of the men tested actually fathered the child. DNA testing requires at minimum a sample from the child and from the father. While at one time testing required blood samples, modern tests only require swabbing the inside of the mouth for cells that contain the DNA. By analysis, technicians identify the genetic information provided by each parent.
After isolating the father’s DNA, laboratory staff reviews the genetic material with a large database that compares the male’s sample sequence with a public database. The comparison then computes the probability that the man is or is not the child’s father. When requiring the test results for court cases, individuals must submit samples in front of non-biased witnesses. Attorneys may receive the subsequent results for submission to the court for determination.
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DNA testing from home is a discreet and convenient way to establish the paternity of a child from the comfort and privacy of your home. Paternity testing is an important step in establishing who the biological father of a child is. This type of testing is extremely important when seeking child support or for fathers, who want parental rights. Genetic Testing Laboratories offer affordable and accurate in home DNA paternity testing.
1. Accuracy of In Home DNA Testing
GTL DNA performs tests within their quality laboratories. Paternity testing is based on sixteen genetic makers to determine the father of a child. If a man is the actual father of a child, fifteen of these genetic markers will correspond exactly with the child’s genetic material. The sixteenth genetic marker is the one that determines the sex of an individual, so it does not factor into this test. These tests when combined with a sampling of the mother’s genetic material are 99.999 percent correct. GTL testing is a 1000 times more conclusive than tests that only have 99 percent accuracy.
2. The Importance of an Accredited DNA Testing Lab
An accredited laboratory must go through a series of thorough assessments and examinations of their testing sites and laboratory procedures. All testing is assessed to make sure it meets the highest standards for precise DNA testing. Laboratories that are not accredited may not deliver the same type of quality testing and may not be used to court cases to determine legal custody. GTL meets the AABB or the American Association of Blood Banks standards for sample collection and testing procedures.
3. Legal Paternity Testing Requirements
A legally admissible paternity test must meet certain criteria established by the AABB. This agency requires that the sample kit be sent to an individual, who does not know the person to be tested. Generally this is a professional collector. A photographic identification is needed to verify the identity of the person tested. This process is a way to establish the legal integrity of the DNA testing, because it is overseen by an unbiased third party. GTL DNA supplies all information to ensure a test will meet the standards required by the AABB to be recognized as an accredited legal paternity test.
4. Advantages of In Home Testing
The accuracy of GTL DNA genetic tests provide the peace of mind that the tests individuals receive are correct. For many individuals, knowledge of paternity is more important than a legally binding test. The “collect and send” test is a relatively simple way to collect DNA samples and send them back to the lab. Each test includes instructions on how to collect genetic material with an ordinary cotton swab. The DNA paperwork is ready to download and print. Then all that is needed is to send it to GTL for testing. Paternity is too important to leave to an unaccredited company. Go with an accredited laboratory and get quality results, when they matter most.
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Violent crimes are among the most horrific events on Earth, but sometimes it gets even worse. The crime itself happens and then another person becomes victim to it. A person’s life can be destroyed or even taken from him or her if authorities accuse and charge the wrong person with the crime. To further compound the tragedy, the families of both the original victim and the person jailed under false accusations may not know that the real criminal is still at large. DNA testing can ultimately prove who is responsible for a given crime investigation.
Randolph Arledge was a victim of a false accusation, charge and conviction. In 1981, Carolyn Armstrong was found dead in Texas from dozens of stab wounds. Randolph was not even 30 years old at the time. Three years later, Randolph was sentenced to 99 years in prison for killing Armstrong. The problem is that he did not do it and there was evidence to prove that fact. He went on to spend 28 years of his 99-year sentence in jail for a crime he did not commit. In February 2013, Arledge was set free. Close to half of his life has been stolen from him, but he got the rest back thanks to modern DNA testing.
When Carolyn Armstrong was found, police also found her car down the road. Her vehicle contained DNA evidence but was useless at the time. Arledge is very lucky that police decided to keep the evidence, since they can usually be discarded in most cases. DNA testing was done more than a decade later and determined that another man was the killer. After a hearing, is when a local judge let Arledge go on bond until the conviction is officially overturned.
When Arledge went to jail, his two children were both under five years old. Currently, they are both adults who grew up without a father. The family is now reunited and Armstrong’s family has the satisfaction of knowing that police definitely have the right man this time. Sadly, that does not get back any of the time Randolph Arledge and his children lost.
It is uncertain just how many people have been incarcerated under wrongful convictions. DNA testing is too late to save hundreds or even thousands of them, but it is not too late to make sure that it happens much less often and never in cases where there is DNA evidence. With reliable companies making it easy for even civilians to get accurate DNA testing, there is no reason police and courts cannot offer the same.
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Prince Harry’s antics in Las Vegas last fall understandably enraged members of the royal family. Sowing a few wild oats may not have invoked such ire if Harry had taken care to ensure the event remained private. However, nude photos of the young prince and a bevy of hookers emerged to the delight of media personnel. The indiscretion soon reached the confines of England’s royal palace. Influenced by her board of advisors, the Queen herself supposedly demanded that Harry undergo DNA testing to determine if he was in fact the product of royal blood.
Lady Diana supposedly had an affair with a military officer by the name of James Hewitt. Many questioned whether the alliance produced the young prince. Like Harry, the gentleman dons red hair and fair skin covered in an array of freckles. According to reports, Prince Charles adamantly prohibited any DNA testing that questioned Harry’s heritage.
Prince Harry Test
In honor of the fun-loving royal, Britain’s DNA now offers couples the opportunity of determining the likelihood of producing a red-haired child. Couples interested in the possibility of passing the red hair trait along to offspring need merely submit a saliva sample for DNA testing. Technicians are able to identify the “ginger gene” by analyzing DNA samples. Dr. Jim Wilson, one of the company’s employees explains that having a child with red hair requires carrying one of three variations of the MC1R gene.
If both parents carry the gene variation, they have a 25 percent possibility of having children with red hair regardless of the hair color of the parents. Passed on from one generation to the next, statistics estimate that four out of every 10 people carry the variation. The company plans to offer the “Who Do You Think You Are?” test during a live exhibition at the London Olympia in February.
Questions Answered by DNA Testing
While DNA testing has long been used for determining paternity, evaluating genetic markers provides a variety of information ranging from ancestry to disease predisposition. Analyzing samples supplied by individuals, technicians successfully separate genetic information donated by each parent. Using worldwide databases, laboratory technicians have the ability of determining the point of origin of genetic material spanning back many generations.
Modern DNA testing identifies when individual’s carry genetic markers associated with over two dozen known medical conditions. Genetic information reveals if individuals carry markers associated with aging processes that might include Alzheimer’s or macular degeneration. Testing also indicates when someone has a likelihood of developing seven different types of cancers. The test might additionally determine the possibility of experiencing cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Using this information, patients and physicians may formulate preventative treatments.
Predisposition testing requires that individuals submit the necessary sample in the office of a health care provider. Individuals may submit DNA samples for ancestry or paternity evaluation from the privacy of their home. After purchasing a test kit, clients merely follow the instructions for acquiring the necessary sample, which generally only entails swabbing the inside of the mouth. Once received by the testing laboratory, technicians perform the desired test and send the results back to the client.
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Ancestral Origins DNA Testing is a way to discover more about your genetic heritage. Every person is born with their own unique DNA. This genetic information remains constant throughout an individual’s lifetime. Each human being’s DNA tells their individual story. It also charts the beginnings of humankind in Africa and the eventual migration of humanity to every part of the globe.
Criteria Used to Determine Your DNA Ancestry
The process of determining your genetic heritage is threefold. Ancestral Origins testing separates the genetic information into three basic areas; populations, indigenous regions and strength estimates.
Using a color coded rating system; your DNA is compared to all the populations in their system. The color green on the map shows the strongest connection to a specific group and location. The color yellow relates to a significant link to particular areas and populaces and red suggest little or no connection. There are also correlations made to dispersed populations. Dispersed relates to groups of people, who were indigenous to one region, but traveled to another country or continent. This pertains to more recent movements of populations around the world.
This testing reveals an ancient ancestry dating back over 80 thousand years. During the history of humankind there have been notable ancient migrations. One of the first migrations occurred, when people traveled out of Africa and up into Europe, then Asia and eventually to Australia. The last two migrations were to North and South America and the final journey was to the Pacific Islands.
This primary evaluation is an estimate of all the populations that are your strongest genetic links. The next assessment shows the most significant connections to indigenous regions. These calculations give a clear overview of all the data, so it is easier to determine your closest genetic matches.
Discovering Your Ancestral Origins
Ancestral DNA testing helps you to appreciate your genetic connection to particular groups and geographic origins. The DNA Ancestry tests can verify genetic relatedness to 14 identified anthropological areas and populaces. GTLDNA.com contains beautifully designed maps and graphs which makes the history and science of ancestral origins easier to appreciate. These individualized prints will make lovely additions your home.
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Any daddy with concerns regarding the paternity of a child can now dash on over to the DNA test express lane to find out. A New York City man cruises the streets in his
mobile paternity test RV, allowing anyone to get the answer to an incredibly sensitive question in an interesting and rather modern way. He takes DNA samples from the
customers in the RV, then offers them the choice of having results mailed to them or having them delivered in person. The DNA tests cost between $299 and $575, although the knowledge they bring can most certainly be priceless.
Seeing a mobile paternity test RV driving down the street may indeed be a call to action for those who have had a question regarding paternity in the back of their mind. It may be something he or she has put off for some time, until the realization that it might be easier than one would have thought to have the testing done. The ability to walk into a private setting, such as the RV, can be less intimidating than walking into a lab. It may feel more intimate and less overwhelming, which might be attractive to someone who is juggling the DNA test issue.
The reasons for wanting a DNA test can range from simple to quite complicated. Some men need DNA tests to prove that their child is really theirs while some want to disprove paternity as a way to extricate themselves from the child support responsibility or other obligations.
Whatever the reason may be, the possibility of having a paternity test done in such a convenient way can be the answer that some people have been hoping for.
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The Mad Men star stays mum about the topic of paternity.
X-Men: The First Stand and Mad Men star, January Jones, has yet to reveal the father of her baby. There is a possibility that Jason Sudeikis, SNL star and ex-fling of January Jones, may have spilled the beans at the 2011 MTV Movie Awards. “I might be a dad soon,” Sudeikis stated while hosting the award ceremony. Jones is not due until the fall but has not been shy about her pregnancy while she tours internationally to promote her role as Emma Frost in the latest X-Men blockbuster.
So is Jason Sudeikis the father or not? In an interview after the MTV Movie Awards, Sudeikis stated that he was “joking.” The couple was together for six-months; the romance became public in July of 2010 and went on before splitting in January of this year.
The 33-year old Mad Men actress made an official statement about her pregnancy in April. Since the baby is due in the fall though and they split in January, some are speculating that it couldn’t be Sudeikis.
Sudeikis and Jones before the split
There have also been recent rumors that the father of the baby is director, Matthew Vaughn. If this is the truth it may explain her silence, especially because Vaughn has three children with super model wife of 9 years, Claudia Schiffer.
A source told US Weekly that Jones is looking forward to being a single mother. Does this mean she has no intention of finding out the true paternity of her unborn child? Do you think January Jones already knows who the father is and is just keeping mum?
Jones could easily confirm the father of her baby with a prenatal paternity test. Early detection can provide answers as early as 10 -12 weeks into a pregnancy. Do you think January will finally reveal who the father of her baby is?
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